Greenfield

30 六月 2019

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Home Food Safety

食品安全

Good Food Safety and Handling Practices

良好的食品安全和处理规范

This information summarises recommended practices that will assist schools in complying with food safety and food handling regulations.

本信息总结了建议的做法,这些做法将有助于学校遵守食品安全和食品处理法规。

This document is in the English language only, which language shall be controlling in all respects, and all versions hereof in any other language shall be for accommodation only.

本文件仅以英文为准,在所有方面应以该种语言为准,并且以任何其他语言撰写的本政策的所有版本均仅用于出于方便的参考。

Personal Hygiene

个人卫生

Good personal hygiene is essential to ensure that:

  • food is not contaminated with food-poisoning bacteria or other matter such as foreign objects or chemicals
  • hands and other parts of the body do not transfer food-poisoning bacteria to food.

良好的个人卫生对于确保:

  • 食物不会被可造成食物中毒大细菌或其他异物(例如异物或化学物质)污染
  • 手和身体的其他部位不会将可造成食物中毒大细菌转移到食物中。

Personal hygiene practices include:

  • hand washing – always wash hands thoroughly with soap and warm water
    • before handling food and after visiting the toilet
    • coughing or sneezing
    • handling garbage
    • touching hair or other body parts or any other activity that may carry bacteria to food
  • personal cleanliness – when handling food:
    • tie long hair back or cover it with a cap or other approved headwear
    • wear limited jewellery
    • wear clean protective clothing over normal clothing
    • store personal items and spare clothes away from any areas involving food handling
  • personal behaviour – do not smoke, chew gum or undertake any other unhygienic practice in food handling areas
  • illness and injuries – all wounds or cuts on hands or arms are to be completely covered with brightly coloured wound strip or bandage. If the wound is on the hands, disposable gloves must be worn over the top of the wound strip. Both the wound strip and gloves must be changed at least hourly or sooner if there is a change in tasks. Individuals suffering from diseases that can be transmitted through food must not handle food.

个人卫生习惯包括:

  • 洗手-始终用肥皂和温水彻底洗手
    • 处理食物之前和上厕所后
    • 咳嗽或打喷嚏
    • 处理垃圾
    • 接触头发或其他身体部位或任何其他可能将细菌带入食物的活动
  • 个人清洁-处理食物时:
    • 将长发扎回去,或盖上帽子或其他认可的头饰
    • 佩戴限量珠宝
    • 穿着干净的防护服,穿普通的衣服
    • 将个人物品和备用衣服存放在远离食品处理区域的任何地方
  • 个人行为-请勿在食品处理区域吸烟,嚼口香糖或进行任何其他不卫生的行为
  • 疾病和伤害-手或手臂上的所有伤口或伤口均应用鲜艳的伤口条或绷带完全覆盖。如果伤口在手上,则必须在伤口条的顶部戴一次性手套。如果任务发生变化,则必须至少每小时或更早更换创口贴和手套。患有可以通过食物传播的疾病的人不得处理食物。

Food Preparation

食物准备

Food naturally contains bacteria and some food may contain food poisoning bacteria. Foods need to be handled correctly to ensure that they do not become contaminated and that the bacteria already in the food do not have an opportunity to grow.

食物天然含有细菌,有些食物可能含有可造成食物中毒的细菌。 需要正确处理食物,以确保它们不会被污染,并且食物中已经存在的细菌没有增长的机会。

It is important to keep raw food totally separate from cooked or ready-to-eat foods.

重要的是,将生食与熟食或即食食品完全分开。

If raw food is cooked thoroughly most of these bacteria will be killed. However, if raw food comes into contact with other food that has already been cooked, or is ready-to-eat, the bacteria can transfer to this food. This is called cross-contamination.

如果将生食彻底煮熟,这些细菌中的大多数将被杀死。 但是,如果生食与已经煮熟或可以即食的其他食物接触,细菌会转移到该食物中。 这称为交叉污染。

This following outlines key food preparation and storage considerations.

以下内容概述了关键的食物准备和存储注意事项。

Receiving food

  • Perishable foods supplied must be transported in a refrigerated food vehicle or refrigerated containers. The temperature of deliveries should be checked.  Food that needs refrigeration must be transported at below 5°.
  • Dry goods being delivered need to be checked for unbroken packaging such as bread and cans.

接收食物

  • 所提供的易腐烂食品必须在冷藏食品运输工具或冷藏容器中运输。 应检查交货温度。 需要冷藏的食物必须在低于5度的温度下运输。
  • 运送的干货需要检查面包和罐头等包装是否完好无损。

Preparing food

  • Use separate utensils, chopping boards and other equipment for raw and ready-to-eat foods to avoid cross-contamination. If this is not possible, thoroughly wash and sanitise equipment between use.
  • Thoroughly wash all fruit and vegetables before use.
  • Don’t use any food if you cannot guarantee its freshness.

准备食物

  • 对于生食和即食食品,请使用单独的器皿,砧板和其他设备,以避免交叉污染。 如果无法做到这一点,请在两次使用之间彻底清洗和消毒设备。
  • 使用前请彻底清洗所有水果和蔬菜。
  • 如果您不能保证食物的新鲜度,请不要使用。

Handling food

  • Raw foods, which are to be cooked, can be safely handled with bare hands (provided hands are clean).
  • Cooked or ready-to-eat foods should be handled with utensils such as tongs, spoons, spatulas or disposable gloves.

处理食物

  • 可以用裸手安全地处理要烹饪的未加工食品(前提是干净的手)。
  • 煮熟或即食的食物应使用诸如钳子,汤匙,小铲子或一次性手套之类的器具处理。

Important: If gloves are worn, they must be changed at least hourly or sooner if they become torn or if there is a change in task e.g. when changing from raw to ready-to-eat food. Always wash hands before putting on gloves. Never touch food with gloves that have been used for cleaning.

重要提示:如果戴上手套,必须至少每小时或更早更换一次,以防手套破损或任务发生变化,例如: 从生食改为即食时。 在戴手套之前,一定要洗手。 切勿使用用于清洁的手套接触食物。

Cooking and heating food

  • Thaw food in the bottom part of the refrigerator before cooking.
  • Microwave ovens can be used to thaw food provided that the food is cooked immediately afterwards.
  • Never refreeze food that has been thawed.
  • All food is thoroughly cooked, especially those of animal origin and ensure the juices run clear.
  • If food can be cooked from a frozen state extra care must be taken to ensure the food is cooked right through.
  • If reheating food ensure that it is brought to the boil and simmered for at least five minutes.

烹调和加热食物

  • 在烹饪之前,将食物解冻到冰箱底部。
  • 微波炉可用于解冻食物,前提是食物应立即煮熟。
  • 切勿重新冷冻解冻的食物。
  • 所有食物,尤其是动物性食物,都应彻底煮熟,并确保汁液畅通无阻。
  • 如果可以从冷冻状态烹饪食物,则必须格外小心,以确保将食物彻底烹饪。
  • 如果要重新加热食物,请确保将其煮沸并煮至少五分钟。

Storage and display

If food is not stored, displayed or transported correctly the naturally forming bacteria can multiply to dangerous levels. One of the most important factors for growth is temperature with the known danger zone being between 5° and 60°.  High risk foods such as meat, dairy products and seafood must spend only the minimum possible time in this zone.

These same foods produced in the form of dried food powders in their original packaging, jars, cans and other containers of which have been processed by heat are not categorised as high risk foods.

Safety can be maintained by correctly storing food:

  • controlling the temperature of high risk foods
    Important: keep cold food cold (below 5°). Keep hot food hot (above 60°).
  • checking equipment, particularly the operating temperatures of refrigerators and freezers including:
    • buying a thermometer and monitor temperatures
    • immediately reporting malfunctioning equipment to the principal (or campsite owner if at a camp)
    • keeping frozen food frozen
    • defrosting freezers regularly and not overloading them.
    • covering food with lids, foil or plastic film
    • once a can is opened any remaining food should be transferred to suitable container and labelled with the date.  Do not store in the can
    • ensuring food does not remain in storage too long
    • storing chemicals, cleaning equipment and personal belongings away from food preparation and food storage areas
  • food that is displayed must either be wrapped or covered
  • bain-maries (or hot holding devices) are to keep hot foods (above 60°) and are not to be used to:
    • reheat foods; or
    • stack food above the level of the trays or else it will not remain sufficiently hot.

存储和展示

如果未正确存储,展示或运输食物,则自然形成的细菌可能繁殖到危险水平。 生长的最重要因素之一是温度,已知危险区在5°至60°之间。 高风险食品(例如肉类,奶制品和海鲜)必须仅在该区域花费最少的时间。

这些以干燥食品粉末形式原包装,罐子,罐头和其他容器经过加热处理的食品,均未归类为高风险食品。

正确存放食物可以维护安全:

  • 控制高风险食品的温度
    重要提示:将冷食保持低温(低于5°)。保持热的食物热(60°以上)。
  • 检查设备,尤其是冰箱和冰柜的工作温度,包括:
    • 购买温度计并监控温度
    • 立即向负责人(如果在营地,则为营地所有者)报告故障设备,
    • 保持冷冻食品的冷冻
    • 定期为冰柜除霜,不要使冰柜超载
    • 用盖,箔或塑料膜盖住食物
    • 打开罐头后,所有剩余的食物都应转移到合适的容器中并贴上日期。不要存放在罐中
    • 确保食物存放时间不会太长
    • 将食物,清洁设备和个人物品存放在远离食物制备和食物存放区域的地方
  • 展示的食物必须包装或盖好
  • 烤面包机(或保温设备)应存放热食(60度以上),并且不得用于:
    • 加热食物;要么
    • 将食物堆放在托盘上方,否则不会保持足够的热量。